The corporation was formed in June 2005 by two UC Berkeley Engineering Professors Paul Wright and Jim Evans and Professor Daniel Steingart of Princeton University to apply wireless technology and energy scavenging to heavy industries. These industries are typically major and inefficient consumers of energy; usually they have low levels of instrumentation and the lack of instrumentation contributes to inefficiencies. In the past the costs and dangers of running wires have precluded improved instrumentation at these plants. Now, wireless instrumentation makes enhanced monitoring and control possible. Initial focus has been on the aluminum industry. This industry has more than doubled its production volume since 1970 and will likely undergo further expansion as demand from developing economies grows. The industry now consumes more electrical energy than the whole of France, mostly in the large electrolytic cells (Hall cells) used for converting aluminum oxide into metal. The energy consumed is more than twice the minimum expected from thermodynamic data.